|For more extended information please refer to the Information Sheets.|
Scott Base sewerage is processed through a Waste Water Treatment Plant and field human waste from land-based camps is brought back to Scott Base for disposal. Supplies for Scott Base are carefully chosen and packed to minimise waste, but some packing waste is always generated, eg cans and boxes. Card paper, glass and aluminium and tin cans are separated for recycling back in Christchurch. Food and food contaminated wastes are returned to New Zealand for disposal. It costs about $10 000/year to bring rubbish back to New Zealand and dispose of it.
Most of the rubbish left in the past has been removed. Scott Base has an active rubbish removal/base-tidying scheme. Examples of cleaning up Antarctica are New Zealand's Vanda Station at Lake Vanda, the Greenpeace World Park Base at Cape Evans and Hallett Station at Cape Hallett. These bases were removed completely from Antarctica, including taking away contaminated soil. There is still a small amount of rubbish yet to be removed from Hallett Station.
The answer to this question depends on the definition of exploitation. Scientific 'exploitation' is provided for as a key purpose of the Antarctic Treaty System but must be within the bounds of the the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. The Protocol also bans all mineral exploitation. CCAMLR is an international agreement designed to allow for ecologically sustainable marine living resource extraction without over exploitation. Tourism occurs in the Antarctic and is governed by the Treaty and Environmental Protocol. The Antarctic tourism industry is self-regulating through IAATO.
No drilling for commercial gain is done in Antarctica . The Antarctic Treaty nations agreed to place a moratorium on mining in Antarctica for fifty years. This moratorium was put in place in the Madrid Protocol in 1991. New Zealand ratified the protocol in 1994. By January 1998 all treaty nations had ratified the protocol and the moratorium was legally in effect.
Because of the low humidity, ie, the dryness of the air, there is a lot of static electricity in Antarctica. Static electricity can be dangerous when refuelling vehicles as the static spark can ignite the fuel vapours.
To decrease the effects people touch metal objects, including structural steel, metal wall cladding and benchtops at regular intervals to avoid painful static shocks from electrical charge build-up. There are anti-static sheets under all computers and electronic equipment to prevent damage from the static and static must be discharged before using equipment, such as computers and phones.
There are three main liquids used in vehicles:
The other liquid related to engines is the acid in batteries. Addition of more acid to the mix prevent freezing and maintains energy output. This liquid has a freezing point of -70°C.
Frostbite occurs when parts of the body do not receive enough warmth to prevent them from freezing. The most commonly affected areas are the ears, nose, hands and feet. Today most frostbite is superficial and recovery is complete once the body has rewarmed. Severe frostbite may result in amputation of the affected area. Correct clothing including hats, scarves, neckwarmers and gloves provide protection from frostbite.
Most navigation in Antarctica is done using the Global Positioning System (GPS) which uses satellite intersections to determine locations. Satellites orbit the earth and are at known positions. A ground-based receiver positioned at an unknown spot on the ground (ie where you are) determines the distance to all the satellites in view. With distances known to several satellites the position of the received can be discovered. A minimum of three satellites is required. The accuracy of the receiver's position depends on how accurately the distances to the satellites are determined. GPS navigation is not weather dependant (unlike using the sun as a navigational aid). GPS can also give the distance between two points on the earth as long as the two points (receivers) can observe the same satellites at the same time. GPS will give accurate distance measurement between the two points regardless of the terrain or distance between the two points.
If you are travelling to the South Pole you can use this to determine how far away you are from the pole as the pole is a known fixed geographic point. There are several levels of GPS. At its simplest GPS can tell us where we are on or above the earth's surface with an accuracy of 100 metres. The most sophisticated GPS can give location accurate down to 10cm.
Cape Royds Hut (occupied periodically during summer): situated at Cape Royds, Ross Island
Cape Evans Huts (occupied periodically during summer): situated at Cape Evans on the West Coast of Ross Island at northern entrance to Erebus Bay.
Lower Wright Refuge Hut: situated on the south side of the Wright Valley, approximately 3 kilometres west of the Wright Lower Glacier
Cape Roberts Huts: situated on promontory on south east edge of Granite Harbour
Bratina Island Huts: situated on Bratina Island near the northern tip of Brown Peninsula
Cape Bird Huts (occupied periodically during summer): sited adjacent to Adelie penguin rookeries at the northern tip of McDonald Beach
Lake Vanda Huts: three relocatable huts opposite the former site of Vanda station, near the mouth of the Onyx River
Cape Hallett: sited in Adelie penguin rookery on Seabee Hook
Cape Adare: Ridley Beach